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Ringed Salamander

Description: 
Ringed salamanders are moderately large, stout salamanders with narrow heads and small eyes. Their name derives from their color pattern, which is black with narrow yellow rings. The yellow rings may or may not be complete across the back and they do not extend to the light-gray to yellow belly. On the tail, the rings are more distinct but also break on the underside. Ringed salamanders have long tails that are nearly round in cross section.
Habitat: 
The distribution of ringed salamanders in the United States is small, extending west to east from eastern Oklahoma through central Arkansas and north to south from southeastern Illinois to central Arkansas.
Life Cycle: 
Like other species of mole salamanders (genus Ambystoma) ringed salamanders spend most of the year underground, except for when they breed. Adult ringed salamanders migrate to temporary ponds during rainstorms in late fall. Migrations typically last only a few days. Once in the ponds, courtship occurs and males deposit a spermatophor on the pond bottom and females pick up the spermatophore with their cloaca. This usually occurs during the first or second night in the ponds, and by the third night, females have deposited their eggs. Eggs are deposited in large clumps of about 100 eggs, and the clumps are attached to vegetation in the water. The small eggs (about one-eighth of an inch in diameter) hatch in from nine to 16 days and the larvae spend the winter in the ponds. Larvae feed on a variety of aquatic invertebrates including ostracods and cladocerans. As the larvae increase in size, they include larger invertebrates in their diets and occasionally eat other salamander larvae. Adults feed on a variety of invertebrates and likely eat a lot of earthworms.
Size: 
Ringed salamanders can reach up to just over nine inches in total length. Most adults vary from five and one-half to seven inches in total length.
Conservation Status: 
Ringed salamanders are considered a Species of Greatest Conservation Need (Tier II) by the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. Although these salamanders move into breeding ponds by the hundreds giving the impression that they could be common, very few breeding ponds are known in Oklahoma.
How to Observe: 

Ringed salamanders are very difficult to observe, but it is possible to see them by visiting known breeding ponds at night during the first large rains in the fall. 

Status: 
Species of Greatest Conservation Need