Oklahoma Biodiversity Plan

Table of Contents

Ecoregions of Oklahoma

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Preface

  • Acknowledgments - ix
  • Executive Summary - xi
  • Biodiversity Council - xiii
  • Biodiversity Task Force - xv
    • Biology Committee - xv
    • Conservation and Recreation Committee - xv
    • Education Committee - xv
    • Forestry and Agriculture Committee - xvi
    • Land Resources Committee - xvi
    • Minerals Committee - xvi
    • Water Resources Committee - xvii

Part I: Understanding Oklahoma’s Biodiversity

  • Chapter 1: What is Biodiversity? - 3
    • Genetic Diversity - 5
    • Species Diversity - 5
    • Community Diversity - 6
    • Unique Elements - 8
    • Summary - 8
  • Chapter 2: Why is Biodiversity Important? - 9
    • Values Independent of Economics - 9
      • Stewardship - 9
      • Natural Heritage - 10
    • Values of Community Processes - 11
      • Water and Soil Conservation - 11
      • Waste Disposal - 11
      • Community Stability - 11
      • Recreation - 12
      • Education - 12
    • Economic Values - 13
      • Ecotourism - 13
      • Locally Consumed Products - 13
      • Commercial Products - 14
      • Medical Values - 14
      • Agriculture - 15
      • Biological Controls - 15
      • Use of Native Plants - 15
      • Avoid Endangering Species - 16
    • Future Value - 16
  • Chapter 3: Oklahoma’s Biodiversity - 17
    • Community Diversity - 17
      • South Central Plains - 17
      • Ouachita Mountains - 21
      • Arkansas Valley - 22
      • Ozark Highlands - 23
      • Central Irregular Plains - 24
      • Central Oklahoma/Texas Plains - 25
      • Flint Hills - 27
      • Central Great Plains - 28
      • Southwestern Tablelands - 31
      • Western High Plains - 32
      • Black Mesa - 33
      • Big Rivers - 34
    • Species Diversity - 35
      • Animals - 35
      • Fungi - 40
      • Plants - 41
    • Genetic Diversity - 42
    • Summary - 42
  • Chapter 4: Factors Influencing Oklahoma’s Biodiversity - 45
    • Physical Factors - 45
      • Geographic Location - 45
      • Landscape Diversity - 45
      • Climate - 46
    • Ecological Processes that Maintain Biodiversity - 46
      • Dispersal - 46
      • Isolation - 47
      • Local Adaptation - 47
      • Speciation - 48
      • Natural Disturbance and Succession - 48
      • Community or Species Restoration - 49
    • Ecological Processes that Decrease Biodiversity - 49
      • Habitat Fragmentation - 50
      • Disruption of Natural Processes - 51
      • Reduction in Population Size - 52
      • Hybridization - 53
      • Species Eliminations - 53
      • Species Introductions - 54
    • Myths or Misunderstanding - 55
    • Rising Demands on Resources - 55
    • Summary - 56

Part II: Recommendations for Conserving Biodiversity

  • Chapter 5: Biological Recommendations to Conserve Oklahoma’s Biodiversity - 59
    • Societal or Economic Level - 59
      • Clean Air, Water and Soil Practices - 59
      • Environmental Education - 60
      • Local Government Conservation Efforts - 61
      • State and Federal Conservation Programs - 62
      • Conservation on Private Land - 62
    • Sensitive Natural Areas - 64
    • Public Lands - 65
    • Biological Information Needs - 66
      • Assembling Existing Knowledge - 66
      • Identifying Knowledge Gaps - 67
    • Scientific Oversight - 67
  • Chapter 6:  Conservation and Recreation Activities Can Enhance Biodiversity Conservation - 69
    • Ways Conservation and Recreation Groups Benefit Biodiversity Conservation - 70
      • Protection of Natural Areas - 70
      • Management and Stewardship Activities - 70
      • Research - 71
      • Education - 72
      • Political Action - 72
      • Individual Actions - 72
    • Ways to Improve Biodiversity Conservation - 72
      • Regional Coordination - 72
      • Funding - 73
        • Inventory and Monitoring - 73
      • Management - 73
      • Incorporate Biodiversity Conservation with Recreational Activities - 74
      • Education - 74
      • Change in Public Perception - 75
      • Outreach - 77
      • Summary - 78
  • Chapter 7:  Forestry and Agricultural Management Can Enhance Biodiversity - 79
    • Practices that Benefit Biodiversity - 81
      • Land-Management Practices - 81
      • Government Services - 83
      • Education - 84
    • Ways to Improve Biodiversity in Forestry and Agriculture - 85
      • Waste Disposal - 85
      • Exotic Species and Pest Control - 85
      • Alternative Crop Markets - 86
      • Conservation Practices - 87
    • Policy Changes Needed to Encourage Biodiversity Management - 89
    • Miscellaneous - 90
    • Outreach - 90
  • Chapter 8: Heavily Used Areas Can Contribute to Biodiversity - 93
    • Ways Heavily Used Areas Can Contribute to Biodiversity - 94
      • Planning - 94
      • Education or Recreation - 94
      • Management Practices - 95
    • Ways Heavily Used Areas Can Enhance Biodiversity - 95
      • Landscaping for Biodiversity - 95
      • Reduce Mowing - 98
      • Minimize Chemical Usage - 99
        • Parks: More Than Swing sets and Ball fields - 99
      • Habitat Banking - 100
      • Control Exotic Species - 100
      • Minimize Illegal Dumping - 101
    • Outreach - 101
    • Summary - 102
  • Chapter 9:  The Minerals Industry Can Enhance Biodiversity - 103
    • The Minerals Industry Addresses Biodiversity - 105
      • Initial Planning - 105
      • Reclamation Planning - 105
      • Minimize Contact with Oil and Related Substances - 106
      • Support of Conservation Programs - 106
      • Ways the Minerals Industry Can Improve Biodiversity Management - 107
      • Incentives - 107
      • Regulatory Issues - 107
      • Physical Practices - 108
      • Planning - 108
      • Mitigation Banking - 109
      • Information and Education - 109
      • Miscellaneous - 110
    • Outreach - 110
    • Summary - 111
  • Chapter 10: Water Managers Can Enhance Biodiversity - 113
    • Water Managers Benefit Biodiversity - 114
      • Water Quality - 115
      • Water Quantity - 116
      • Management of Wetlands and Fisheries - 116
    • Ways Water Managers Can Enhance Biodiversity - 117
      • Water Quality - 117
      • Water Quantity - 118
      • Habitat - 119
      • Exotic Species - 119
      • Education - 120
  • Chapter 11: Distributing Biodiversity Information to the Public - 121
    • Educational Actions - 121
      • Define and Describe Oklahoma’s Biodiversity - 121
      • Dispel Myths About Biodiversity - 122
      • Emphasize Proactive Benefits - 122
      • Explain How Biodiversity Benefits Individuals - 122
      • Explain the Biodiversity Project and Plan - 122
      • Develop Tools Targeting Specific Audiences - 122
    • Prioritized Audiences - 123
      1. Residential - 123
      2. Agriculture - 123
      3. Business and Industry - 123
      4. Educators - 124
      5. Social Organizations - 124
      6. Public Land Managers - 124
      7. Mass Media - 124
      8. Elected Officials - 124
    • Products and Outlets for Biodiversity Information - 125
      • In-house Communication - 125
      • Workshops or Conferences - 125
      • Audio Visuals - 125
      • Media Information - 125
      • Printed Materials - 125
      • Educational Centers - 126
      • Miscellaneous - 126
  • Quick Glance at Management Recommendations - 127
    • Biological Recommendations - 127
    • Recommendations for Conservation and Recreational Organizations - 127
    • Recommendations for Forestry and Agricultural Management - 127
    • Recommendations for Heavily Used Areas - 128
    • Recommendations for the Minerals Industry - 128
    • Recommendations for Water Managers - 129
    • Recommendations for Educational Efforts - 129